Linde-Edelstam et al. demonstrated that the importance of atrial contraction to ventricular filling diminishes in accordance with increasing blood flow velocity as the exercise work load increases . Furthermore, left atrial pressure determines the contribution of atrial contraction to LV filling, and the elevation of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was reported to diminish the power of atrial contraction on the cardiac output . These studies suggest that multiple factors affect the contribution of atrial-derived factors on the cardiac output. Further investigations should be conducted to better understand the mechanism underlying decreased Odos pulse in AF patients.
Another interesting aspect of this manuscript is the close association between the HR response and increase in the O2 pulse above the AT level. The inverse association between HR change, which is a marker of chronotropy, and the increase in the O2 pulse above the AT level is strikingly enhanced in AF patients. The HR change during exercise could predict the trend of the O2 pulse at the submaximal stage. In addition, there were two different groups with different trends in the O2 pulse in AF patients; one wherein VO2 is maintained above the AT level by increasing HR and one wherein VO2 is maintained by increasing the stroke volume. The blunted increase in the O2 pulse above the AT level corresponded to the enhanced response of chronotropy, maintaining the value of VO2/kg. However, there were no differences in laboratory data, echocardiographic parameters, and medication profiles.
Multiple research has shown this new connection ranging from Hour or Hr reaction and practice strength [21,22]. This new improved Hr reaction within the AF people could have been shown into the prior education [fourteen,23] features come considered on account of an elevated sympathetic drive triggered to keep up cardiac output. Although not, increasing Hours will not always improve exercise tolerance otherwise episodes in the AF clients . Indeed, the level of overstated chronotropic reaction evoked a negative impact on cardiac efficiency above the average concentration of do so plus the bad impact are a great deal more enhanced in AF people. Inside studies, you will find no factor in Hours trend ranging from AF and you may cSR patients, which will show the different organization away from Time effect and the changes out of cardiac productivity anywhere between AF and you can cSR people much more expert manner. The fresh new determinant circumstances from chronotropy within the AF people is justified alot more concisely [twenty five,26]. Various other you can determining factor out of chronotropy during the AF try atrial mode, eg atrial appendage emptying acceleration otherwise atrial contractile function. In order to verify they, more in depth investigations away from atrial function should be did.
The findings of the current study suggested that, aerobic exercise is generally performed as a main protocol of cardiac rehabilitation, in which the change of O2 pulse during exercise had similar behavior between patients with sinus rhythm and AF. However, the exercise capacity is significantly impaired above the level of AT and the change of HR reflected the burden of exercise in a more exaggerated manner in patients with AF than patients with sinus rhythm.
There are several limitations in the present study, which includes a small study population without healthy controls. In addition, the patient population was limited to those receiving cardiac rehabilitation, which could evoke referral bias because patients referred for cardiac rehabilitation are not representative of the general community population. In selecting cSR patients, there was some possibility that they were different from SR patients and the difference of chronotropic https://datingranking.net/pl/jeevansathi-recenzja/ competency may be a candidate to segregate the cSR group from a general SR group, which, however, is above the scope of this study. The elucidation of basic characteristics of these classifications is also warranted. Because the disease severity in our patients was mild and the study population included only Japanese patients, the results should be carefully interpreted when applied to different populations. The voluntary participation of the study patients in ambulatory cardiac rehabilitation may introduce some bias in the present study. In addition, the study design was limited regarding the evaluation of the effect of medications. Among them, the medication of beta blockers should be carefully considered because it might significantly affect the behavior of HR. However, there were no significant differences in HR trend, VO2/kg trend during exercise in AF patients in this study.